Cyprinodontiformes vivíparos e ovovivíparos

Livebearer Cyprinodontiformes



















How come a species breeding and maintenance program ?

How does can work a breeding and maintenance program ?

Guidelines ( regulations )

What is needed for subscription ?

How come a species breeding and maintenance program ?
( written in November 2005 )

Only the absence of any kind of cooperation among those deeply interested on this species in Portugal can give good reason for people kept all this time apart and untouchable. Isolation doesn’t bring up many chances for experience sharing, know how involvement, but, in particular to promote some sort of what so ever management to deal with the metapopulations problem. Only by means of any kind of solution for this dilemma, small keepers can overcome aquarium small populations genetic lost of viability.

2) By the time of this website idea and start, the emptiness on some sort of national society that could represent and support fans of livebearer Cyprinodontiformes, similar to an association or other form as well, was also a excellent reason to think about a nonconformist answer to that status quo.

3) Because pet shop and specialized national and international market carry on in a persistent underprovided attention to these fishes.

Poor market offer can’t reach hobbyists aspirations to certain species. In fact, only though particular friends or foreign associations and clubs auctions is possible to reach some species.

(1) note : In September 2005 the sole national organization dedicated to Livebearer Cyprinodontiformes was a Guppy – Poecilia reticulata one, focused specifically on the amaze array of man made selective breeding. Outside could stay anyone more involved with other options, such as those potentially fascinated by wild types of other species.

Portugal by the end of 2005 ( brief abstract )

The third validation above means that roughly all these fishes, from the rare species that composed the aquaria population, belonged to cultivated varieties exhibiting long fins or exotic body coloration, very far way from their long gone ancestors collect in nature.

This is the realization of an enduring work that took place on the last century and a half or so, manipulating an incredible number of generations thru a careful selection by the enthusiasts of this leisure pursuit occupation. Some of the end result of man playing God with pets, are today's row material for an millionaire international market of aquarium fish trade.

Even so, under the most remarkable foreign world specialist’s excellence parameters, only relatively poor or low quality cultivated fish could be usually available at our national pet shops.

More or less classified here by ease of find, these were the only species present normally in Portuguese commerce :

Poecilia reticulata

Xiphophorus maculatus

Xiphophorus helleri

Poecilia spp ( hybrids between more common Molly species in aquaria )

Poecilia sphenops

Poecilia latipinna

Poecilia velifera

Xiphophorus variatus

Easily everyone can agree for sure than if we take in consideration about 252 species of 28 genera at Poeciliinae Sub-Family, 47 species of 16 genera at Sub-Family Goodeinae and 14 species of 2 genera at Sub-Family Anableptinae, on the universe of possible choices on livebearer Cyprinodontiformes, this list is in fact short and limited.

By other hand, the very rare and almost inexistent specimens of original morphology and body coloration ( more or less ), were deeply ignored by consumers and considered a dreadful investment for those whom main goal was to sell a lot and fast as possible.

Only after 1998, ( but once in a blue moon and merely in some exceptional occasions ), the following species were imported :

Limia nigrofasciata

Girardinus metalicus

Gambusia puncticulata

Xiphophorus xiphidum

Poecilia wingei

Heterandria formosa

Xenotoca eiseni

Ameca splendens

Eventually this list is not quite complete, but it illustrates entirely the real disparity between our local aquarium fish market and what was going on, in countries like Germany, United Kingdom, France, Czech Republic, Japan and United States of America, among others.

Part of the described look down on the livebearers Cyprinodontiformes in Portugal can be justified by the lack of information remaining among aquarium fans concerning these Sub-Families of fishes, other than the usual small amount of ordinary species available.

Another also important role on this matter is paid by the large majority of the aquarium keeper society in the national panorama, who still insists to look on freshwater fish resembling as much as possible with those exhibiting exceptional colorations on the tropical coral seas. Pursuing that effort, people buy frequently hybrids and even animals submitted to painful treatments using brutal and inhuman practice in order to look after colourful and prettiest at our eyes.

Thanks to this philosophy, many aquarium keepers frequently do not think a minute before joint together in the same tank living beings who originally coming from different biotopes that naturally display dramatic differences on the physical and chemical parameters. All of this is done in the name of a more valuable esthetical result under our own beauty concept.

Regarding livebearer Cyprinodontiformes kept in our country, besides the two above-mentioned lists of species, only a small number of privileged lucky persons ( some of them real fans others only transient ), could maintain or have maintained during some time, an even less reduced number of species that never appear in the market and, by that reason, cannot be considered here or evaluated by lack of information about it.

Usually a great number of this experiences didn’t work out for long, as they have failed by endogamy reasons or sudden disinterest caused by this unique fish, ( very rare presence in aquarium ), be short of coloration or bloom.

Most of these stocks originally came from trade made in foreign countries or even travelled as “ clandestine “ in some return flight from vacations from the natural distribution or to some region where Poecilids more wide spread speceies were introduced by man in the past.

Consequently the preponderance of this rare populations were not composed by fish collected in the wild but, instead, by their descendents raised in aquarium at less or long number of generations in Europe, United States or Japan. Others came from those captured on lakes in public urban gardens, hotels or resorts before the return back home while travelling.

As always there are some exceptions on everything written above.

Any way, it results very on a evident need to react against this status quo and the imperative require for searching conditions to spread the news about the potentialities found out on abundant number of species from these fishes Sub-Families, unknown to a vast majority of aquarists in this country.

On meanwhile urgent support to fans of these animals was also crucial before more give up’s take palace. Everything should be made to create the chances to increase better results while keeping these fishes.

Another reason is concerned with an easier access by the fans or simple interested people to species until now unavailable on pet shops.

Also really important is to create means to stimulate the end of failures, ( generally due to the need of support or apathetic keepers ), specially if we are talking about rare populations in captivity threatened in nature or even extinct by now.

The next step is to take a careful look on the rules of the project coming below, where all you need to know about it is there and eventually can help a better evaluation on your possible participation.

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How does can work a breeding and maintenance program ?

Participation on this Livebearer Cyprinodontiformes breeding and upholding project is only submitted to regulation agreement and conscientious acceptance after
subscription formalities.

Participants should try best effords to data update with reference to stocks or collections kept.

Another golden rule is willingness to receive and to offer some fish of traditional and unusual species.

This aim doesn’t work only with newcomers starting culture supplying, but also to preserve and keep up stocks in good genetic viability by “ new blood “ input.

Above all is important to let very clearly that the fish exchanges or offers can’t work as a imposition or as a rule . Any hypothetical pressure or moral claim to participate in fish trade is absolutely unacceptable at all. Everyone must feel it naturally.

Genetic viability and survival of a small number of fish keept, depends much on stock heredity renovation from time to time.

Organized cooperation involving breeders and keepers is vital; especially when considering space contingencies to maintain in good health several hundred reproductive mature animals and respective offspring.

Simultaneously with remaining objectives, the noblest and most important resource on a program of this kind is a metapopulations management plan to avoid at any cost the genetic problems in small populations.

Based on this principle, it was prepared a very unsophisticated database with two sorts of information - one available to universal public and other only accessed by participants.

Inside we can find the below contents :

Species, sub-species and strains identification list ( including captivity man made strains throughout breeding selection )

Source identification list ( original wild fishes source location )

Participation list

Participants stock record ( with lineage and original supply identification )

Management program

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Guidelines ( regulations )

The livebearers Cyprinodontiformes breeding and maintenance project, in advance also named Poeciliinae Goodeinae Anableptinae, or simply PGA, is a simple management system supported by a very simple and ordinary data base.

Fishes exchanges are encouraged but are far from be held as an obligation. Any participant must handle owned stocks as well as personal point of view may guide him.

The program will not interfere on participant’s acts. It is purely an information support and can’t impose any sort of fish collection administration measures.

Exchange, offer, acquisition, sail and buying acts or proceedings are participants fully responsibility only.

A mere information and divulgation process is not answerable for any sort of arrangements between participants, except by connecting them and to present important information about individual stock convenience.

To reveal more of why it is necessary to go a little further, PGA project is also committed to the fallowing objectives :

1) Working for biodiversity perpetuation of the livebearers Cyprinodontiformes Sub-families and to preserve the highest standards of genetic multiplicity among the aquarium populations.

2) Working for the acknowledgment and for a better expertise on all species and populations of livebearers Cyprinodontiformes without exception.

3) Working for the methodology of upholding and breeding livebearers Cyprinodontiformes in aquarium under the best possible conditions, specifically regarding their respective biology and species nutrition essentials or physic and chemical requests. In this way of acting it is included the study and implementation of conduct proceedings, on an ethnic and moral basis, concerning the animals care, reproduction, commerce, transport and captures in nature.

4) Working for awareness upon the requests for environment conservation of livebearers Cyprinodontiformes habitat ecosystems.

5) Working for better knowledge about the natural habitat, specific biotopes, biology, and ecological requirements of the livebearers Cyprinodontiformes.

6) Working for guide keepers and breeders to finish crossbreed between species in aquarium and for the implementation of an effective identification system of populations maintaining their genetic purity.

Running for the objectives regarding of these rules, PGA will use the below mentioned resources according to potential at any moment and the concern reveal by the participants :

Maintain an Internet website for enlighten and encouragement and as a mean of assure contact with visitors and participants.

8) Constitute a data base on which it will be possible to find all the necessary records about the species and stocks in aquarium based on the partipants contributions. Part it will be available as public information and part reserved only for internal consulting.

8.1) Better stock management by controlled specimen exchange avoiding the armful effects of endogamy.

8.2) Creating access to information about who is keeping what species in a precise moment, facilitating fish spreading among those who really are looking for them.

8.3) Effective global management of those species threatened or vanished in nature, carrying of a better perspective of the conservationist efforts, dispersing this responsibility for several interested hobbyists and not only by one or by a small number excessively concentrated.

8.4) Avoid crossbreed between different populations of the same species as an warranty for it genetic purity.

8.5) To encouraging species and populations dissemination by the largest number of keepers.

8.6) Eventually support aquarium artificial selection strain breeders in deference by the PGA objectives and assure no crosses of these fishes with “ wild “ type populations.

9) To organize working meetings, events for exchange of know how and fish, technical presentations, debates, small conventions, nature expeditions, exhibitions, organized tours to other groups events, and so on.

10) Work on the administration of an internal mailing list for the usual purposes and participant’s learning needs support.

11) Assist new members or any one else to get new species or population specimen throughout fish exchange or simple donations.

In pursue of objectives, PGA conduct must fallow the next code of conduct values :

12) Respect by pluralism and free of expression, orientation and opinion.

13) Respect by dissimilarity, valuating different know how’s and experience.

14) Respect by nature and by sustainable development.

15) Respect by clearness on the relations between participants and on the information send out by PGA.

16) Respect by members privacy.

17) Respect by national and international Laws.

All participants without exception can be entitled to the next rights :

18) The right to use, access or benefit from every service and prerogative offered by the PGA in equal form with all other participants without exception, specially those acquired after the participation begin to take effect.

19) To involve itself by free option in volunteer responsibilities while participant on the PGA approach to accomplish the project objectives.

20) To be helped oriented or improve self-understanding on care and breeding livebearer Cyprinodontiformes.

21) To be respected on individual estimation and principles.

22) To be author of works published at website if not refused only by ethical or scientific arguments.

All participants without exception are invited for the next duties :

23) To value and perform under the rules of the project.

24) To contribute individually or collectively to the objectives and achievements of PGA.

25) To be right and demonstrate a civic conduct during relations with other members.

26) To promote friendship and help actions to benefit and improve PGA performance.

27) To have a word in the name of PGA only if by-law mandated to do so. Participants shall also be aware of their general conduct whilst representing the project in any capacity, and shall not conduct themselves in a manner, which could bring the system into disrepute.

28) To help new comers to an easy integration and all interested in keep and breed livebearer Cyprinodontiformes with fine suggestions or fish donation when possible.

Subscription and resignation :

29) Can only become participant when the candidate accept these rules.

30) Admittance of a new participant is only possible after proposal by the candidate.

31) Admittance of a new participant can never be refused based on membership in fish keeping type organizations, nationality, race, language, believes, political ideology or occupation.

Minors by Law do not need parental or guardian written authorization prior to subscription.

32) Admittance of participants is always free.

33) Subscription does not evolve any future costs or charges, except the just payment of remunerated activities or events and only by the respective participants ( and only after acknowledged the advertised tariffs ).

34) Someone wishing to resign participation must only send a written message informing about this intention.

Any participant found guilty of misconduct ( i.e. behaviour contrary to these rules ) or heavy legal sentence, may be invited to leave the project.

Any person expelled will have the right to appeal not later than 15 days from the date of expulsion.

Where the membership shall be terminated in this way the expelled participant shall be informed in writing that the respective link to the project is no longer valid by notice handed to him/her or sent by e-mail to last known address in less than 5 days.

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What is needed for subscription ?

For subscription formalities it is only as much as necessary an e-mail message via this link PGA in with the below data :

Full name or only name and surname otherwise

E-mail address *


Town and country

On subject please write only PGA subscription.

Under national and international Laws all these data will considered by the highest levels of confidentiality in entire respect for members privacy.

The act of subscription confirm candidates understanding and acceptance that all the project rules shall govern the participation and constitute blinding contract to regulate the relationship of them with each other and with the PGA program.

Subscription will immediately free access the new participant to internal information at data base, to receive and send e-mail messages into the mailing list, the right to be invited to participants meetings, to be present in all events organized by the PGA, among other rights and services.

* This e-mail address must be understood as the primordial way of contact with the Club and can be diverse from the one used for subscription.

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